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Based on these similarities, the sinologist Martin Bernal created the "Black Athena" hypothesis, which claimed that Neith was brought to Greece from Egypt, along with "an enormous number of features of civilization and culture in the third and second millennia".Votive bronzes at the site from the Geometric and Archaic periods take the forms of horses and deer; there are sealstone and fibulae.Since the Renaissance, Athena has become an international symbol of wisdom and the arts.Western artists and allegorists have often used Athena as a symbol of freedom and democracy.

Marinus of Neapolis reports that when Christians removed the statue of the Goddess from the Parthenon, a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to Proclus, a devotee of Athena, and announced that the "Athenian Lady" wished to dwell with him.

As the patron of craft and weaving, Athena was known as Ergane.

Athena was also a warrior goddess, and was believed to lead soldiers into battle as Athena Promachos.

The fable of Arachne appears in Ovid's Metamorphoses (8 AD) (vi.5–54 and 129–145) and is briefly referenced in Virgil's Georgics, (29 BC) (iv, 246).

Though both of these works are primarily derived from Hesiod and other classical Greek sources, the tale of Arachne does not appear in Hesiod, nor has any earlier Greek-language source for the story survived. According to Ovid, Arachne was the daughter of a famous dyer in Tyrian purple in Hypaipa of Lydia, and a weaving student of Athena.