Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee.
The Indus Valley civilization, one of the oldest in the world and dating back at least 5,000 years, spread over much of what is presently Pakistan. C., remnants of this culture fused with the migrating Indo-Aryan peoples.
The separation in 1947 of British India into the Muslim state of Pakistan (with West and East sections) and largely Hindu India was never satisfactorily resolved, and India and Pakistan fought two wars and a limited conflict - in 1947-48, 1965, and 1999 respectively - over the disputed Kashmir territory.
A third war between these countries in 1971 - in which India capitalized on Islamabad's marginalization of Bengalis in Pakistani politics - resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh.
Chandrashekar RAO]Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]YSR Congress (YSRC) [Jaganmohan REDDY]note: India has dozens of national and regional political parties Awami National Party or ANP [Mian Iftikhar HUSSAIN]Balochistan National Party-Awami or BNP-A [Mir Israr Ullah ZEHRI]Balochistan National Party-Mengal or BNP-M [Sardar Akhtar Jan MENGAL]Jamaat-i Islami or JI [Sirajul HAQ]Jamiat-i Ulema-i Islam Fazl-ur Rehman or JUI-F [Fazlur REHMAN]Muttahida Qaumi Movement or MQM [Farooq SATTAR]Muttahida Qaumi Movement-London or MQM-L [Nadeem NUSRAT]Pakhtun khwa Milli Awami Party or Pk MAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]Pakistan Muslim League-Functional or PML-F [Pir PAGARO or Syed Shah Mardan SHAH-II]Pakistan Muslim League-Nawaz or PML-N [Nawaz SHARIF]Pakistan Peoples Party Parliamentarians or PPPP [Bilawal Bhutto ZARDARI and Asif Ali ZARDARI]Pakistan Tehrik-e Insaaf or PTI [Imran KHAN]Pak Sarzameen Party or PSP [Mustafa KAMAL]Quami Watan Party or QWP [Aftab Ahmed Khan SHERPAO]note: political alliances in Pakistan shift frequently All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)Bajrang Dal (militant religious organization)Jamiat Ulema-e Hind [Mahmood MADANI] (religious organization)Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (nationalist organization)Vishwa Hindu Parishad [Pravin TOGADIA] (militant religious organization)other: hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at state and local level; numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy ADB, Af DB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-5, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOADB, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), C, CICA, CP, D-8, ECO, FAO, G-11, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTOchief of mission: Ambassador Navtej Singh SARNA (since January 2017)chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; telephone: (202) 939-7000telephone:  (202) 939-7000FAX:  (202) 265-4351consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Franciscochief of mission: Aizaz Ahmad CHAUDHRY (since 24 April 2017)chancery: 3517 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 243-6500FAX:  (202) 686-1534consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New Yorkconsulate(s): Louisville (KY), San Franciscochief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Mary Kay L.
Carlson (since 20 January 2017)embassy: Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021mailing address: use embassy street addresstelephone:  (11) 2419-8000FAX:  (11) 2419-0017consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)chief of mission: Ambassador David M.